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Full text of "The Fate Of Man In The Modern World"

DEHUMANIZATION                           65

gave rise to the myth he created, like that of
Mars concerning the infallibility and sanctity of
the will of the proletariat.

In reality, however, a sovereign people, just
like a sovereign proletariat, may abolish all
liberty and completely suppress human person-
ality, may demand that man renounce his personal
conscience. In complete control of the state, a
sovereign people may take its state for a church
and on that basis begin to organize the spirit and
spiritual life. And every " ideocracy," whose
prototype is the Republic of Plato, takes the state
for a church and ascribes ecclesiastical functions
to the state. In principle the Jacobin democracy
is already a tyrannical ideocracy denying the
freedom of the spirit. The idea of inalienable
subjective rights for personality is of quite a
different origin, and is, of course, much more
Christian than that of a sovereign people. As
Mussolini remarks, when a united people takes
the state finally into its own hands, the state
actually becomes that of the people. Then the
state becomes absolute, it is subject to no limi-
tations whatever. Against an absolute state,
oppressed personality has always struggled, the
personality of subject-groups such as the bour-
geoisie, the intellectuals, the workers, and they
have tried to enforce limitations upon the state.
But when the struggle between castes, classes and